The example of Starbucks is particularly telling. In September 2018, when the coffee chain was already a very popular institution in a large part of European countries, one state stood out: Italy.
In the homeland of the espresso consumed in three sips at the counter, there were still no Starbucks, and the opening of the first point of sale in Milan, in September 2018, was a real event observed by the local population with a mixture of curiosity and distrust. Four years later, the results are not encouraging: there are only a handful of brands left in Italy, the majority having had to close their doors for lack of customers.
An outcome to which the pandemic has certainly contributed, but in general the observation is that the “standardized” model of Starbucks has not been able to impose itself in the face of local tradition. And this is not an isolated case.
Difficulty of importing a form of standardization
Recently, Domino’s Pizza closed its de